Factor X deficiency, or Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, is a rare bleeding disorder caused by low blood levels of a protein called coagulation factor X. It affects about one person per million worldwide and can vary in severity. The most severe cases occur in childhood, although symptoms can begin at any age.
The disorder can cause bleeding from the nose, from the gums, and under the skin; blood in the urine; easy bruising; and abnormal bleeding after surgery or trauma. Women might have heavy or prolonged bleeding during menstruation or in childbirth, and they might have increased risk of pregnancy loss. Patients with lower levels of coagulation factor X tend to have more severe symptoms, which can include bleeding inside the skull, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract.
- The inherited form is caused by mutations in the F10 gene, which provides instructions for making coagulation factor X. These mutations can lead to Type 1 factor X deficiency, in which the blood doesn’t have enough coagulation factor X, or Type 2 factor X deficiency, in which the coagulation factor X doesn’t work.
- The acquired form can be caused by other disorders, such as severe liver disease or systemic amyloidosis. It can be caused by certain drugs (such as medicines that prevent clotting) or by a deficiency of vitamin K.
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